An architecture style is a group of outside influences that affect a building’s form, construction method, and materials. This allows the structure to be recognized and described historically and aesthetically.
The majority of architectural styles evolve over time as new opportunities and emerging styles are created by shifting trends in fashion, technology, religion, and belief systems. Because of this, the majority of styles adhere to and can be categorized according to time. A style may evolve and alter at any time, and it frequently coexists with a number of others both locally and internationally.
However, if the proper individual picks it up, it can travel from its origin to the other side of the planet and is not restricted to just one place or region. This frequently leads to its growth and change into a new or modified style to adopt.
Here, we list the major architectural movements that contributed to the development of contemporary architectural movements in chronological order.
Buildings first formed as early civilizations spread out throughout the globe, frequently independently, in response to needs for shelter, security, places of worship, gathering places, etc.
A very diverse architectural style that frequently combined stone hewn from nearby rocks and timber taken from local forests was created by utilizing the materials, space, and abilities that were available.
Architecture Dating from 10,000 to 2,000 BC
Neolithic “architecture” comprised monuments like the megaliths found in Europe and the Mediterranean as well as tombs, churches, and other significant constructions. These constructions varied greatly in their complexity. Mud brick, skins, textiles, wattle and daub, stone, and wood were all used as building materials. This period also saw the construction of the Sweet Track in England, the oldest engineered road in the world.
From 4500 to 2000 BC, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is the name given to the Tigris-Euphrates river system’s ancient architecture, which includes a variety of diverse cultures. Its achievements include the creation of intricate urban planning systems, courtyard houses, ziggurats, and stepped pyramids constructed as parts of temple complexes.
Egyptian Antiquity, 3750 BC to 400 AD
Ancient Egypt was not a single stable society, and as a result, there was constant upheaval and change, which gave rise to a wide range of architectural styles. Great architectural structures were created by the Ancient Egyptians, the most famous of which are the Great Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza.
Due to Egypt’s geographic position, structures and monuments were typically built utilizing limestone and hardened mud bricks because there was a shortage of wood. Many of the structures would be astronomically oriented and constructed by slaves.
Greek History, from 900 BC to 300 AD
The temples of the ancient Greeks, as well as their evolving civic and religious values, are what make their architecture most famous. a wide variety of public structures, from monuments to open-air theatres and public squares. A distinct evolution of architectural style through three specified orders—Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—was included in architectural design, adopting more formalized decorative and structural elements.
Roman Period, 300 BCE to 700 AD
With a similar focus on civic buildings, ancient Roman architecture absorbed some of the external languages of classical Greek architecture but differed from Greek buildings, creating a separate architectural style. It was well known for having a wide variety of famous structures, including temples, spas, villas, amphitheaters, palaces, and circuses.
Roman architecture created crucial structural components like domes, vaulted ceilings, and arches that were often made of concrete and were both sturdy and expertly built. This paved the way for the creation of ground-breaking civil engineering projects, including bridges, aqueducts, and roadways.
330 A.D. to 1453 A.D.
With Near Eastern elements, Byzantine architecture was a development of Roman architecture. The Greek cross plan was used in church construction, which frequently comprised intricate dome structures supported by large piers. Buildings also became more geometrically complex.
Muslim Era: 711 to 1492
In North Africa, as well as in some regions of Spain and Portugal, where the Andalusians (Moors) ruled between 711 and 1492, Moorish architecture is the articulated form of Islamic architecture.
Muqarnas, horseshoe arches, voussoirs, domes, crenelated arches, lancet arches, ogee arches, courtyards, and colorful tile work known as Azulejo in Spanish and Portuguese are typical characteristics of Moorish architecture.
1000 to 1300 Hoysala
The Hoysala Empire ruled over the area that is now known as Karnataka, an Indian state, and this led to the development of the building style known as Hoysala architecture. The Southern Deccan Plateau was ruled by the Hoysalas at the height of their power in the 13th century.
Romanesque Period (1050–1170)
Semi-circular arches are a defining feature of the architectural style known as Romanesque in mediaeval Europe. The Gothic style, which is characterized by pointed arches, emerged in the 12th century. Romanesque architecture is the first pan-European architectural style since the Imperial Roman building, and there are examples of it all over the continent.
1250 to 1075 in Norman
The Normans created the Romanesque architectural category known as Norman architecture. The phrase is typically used to describe English Romanesque architecture in particular. Numerous castles and fortifications, such as Norman keeps, as well as monasteries, abbeys, churches, and cathedrals, were built by the Normans. These structures were built in a style known for its typical Romanesque rounded arches and especially massive proportions when compared to other regional variations of the style.
Mudejar Era, 1125–1600
The fusion of Moorish and European architectural and decorative styles is known as the Mudéjar style. It is distinguished by the predominant use of brick, particularly for bell towers. Contrary to Gothic or Romanesque, Mudéjar integrated Islamic and Jewish art and architecture into medieval and renaissance Christian buildings rather than creating new shapes or constructions. Gothic
In Europe, the 11th and 12th centuries saw the emergence of gothic architecture. It was distinguished by a focus on the vertical, with progressively taller constructions that included almost absurdly thin stone structures, pointed arches, and ribbed stone vaults, interspersed with expanses of glass and supported by external flying buttresses.
1350 to 1550 in Sondergotik
The Late Gothic architectural style that was popular in Austria, Bavaria, Saxony, and Bohemia is known as Sondergotik (Special Gothic). Sondergotik showed attention to detail both within and externally. Fluidity and a wood-like character were emphasized in carving and embellishment in many Sondergotik structures, especially on vaults. The buildings outside tended to use bulk buttressing.
In Europe, where there was a resurgence of interest in classical antiquities and the development of new scientific knowledge, the Renaissance style of architecture evolved. With the use of columns, pilasters, lintels, arches, and domes, it was praised for its clear lines, symmetry, and proportion, which were evocative of the architecture of ancient Rome. Understanding perspective also helped architects more deliberately compose their architectural forms.
Tudor Era, 1485–1603.
The Tudor architectural style is both the culmination of a medieval building in England and a hesitant foray toward the Renaissance. The term “Tudor” has come to describe slower-moving vernacular architectural traditions, like half-timbering, which distinguishes the few pre-1485 structures still standing from other Stuart-era structures. Manueline
1500 to 1520 was the High Renaissance.
The High Renaissance saw the development and confident application of ideas borrowed from ancient antiquity, extending the applicability of classical architecture to modern structures.
1530 to 1600: Mannerism
The European art movement known as Mannerism, or Late Renaissance, began in the latter stages of the Italian High Renaissance, approximately 1520. In addition to its artificial characteristics, fashion is famous for its cerebral complexity. In contrast to the equilibrium and clarity of early Renaissance paintings, it encourages compositional tension and instability.
Baroque, from 1600 to 1755
With dramatic lighting and color, illusion effects like trompe l’oeil, and designs that occasionally left architectural aspects unfinished, baroque architecture was a more theatrical version of Renaissance architecture.
The primary façade of its structures frequently has center towers, domes, porticos, or other central projections. Baroque architecture may be seen all over the world because it developed at the same time as European colonialism
1615 to 1690: Palladianism
The designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio are the source and inspiration for the European architectural style known as Palladian. The symmetry and perspective of the temples built by the Ancient Greeks and Romans served as the inspiration for Palladian designs. The use of pediments, symmetry, and proportions that were based on math rather than adornment were its defining features. Palladian style is distinguished by its classical façade.
Georgian Period (1714–1830)
Despite its wide range, the Georgian architectural style is characterized by symmetry and proportions that are inspired by the classical architecture of Greece and Rome and were revived in Renaissance architecture.
In Britain, the term “Georgian” is typically restricted to buildings that are “architectural in intention” and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the period, though that covers a wide range. In the United States, the term “Georgian” is generally used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style.
Neoclassical Period: 1750–1920
Neoclassical architecture, which is based on Palladian design, makes references to ancient Greek and Roman construction. Its flat, planar appearance highlights the wall and the division of the elements. The White House in Washington and the Bank of England in London are two notable instances of neoclassical construction.
1760 to 1880: Gothic Revival
The Gothic Revival architectural style was born in England. Its popularity skyrocketed in the early 19th century as more serious and educated neo-Gothic fans sought to resurrect medieval Gothic architecture as an alternative to the then-dominant neoclassical forms. The original Gothic style’s decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, hood molds, and label stops are all incorporated into Gothic Revival architecture.
Federal Building Design from 1780 to 1830
The traditional style of architecture constructed in the newly created United States is known as federal architecture. The term “Federal style” is also applied to furniture design from the same era in the United States. The architecture of the Regency era in Britain, the French Empire style, and the classicism of the Biedermeier style in German-speaking countries are all examples of this style.
Russian Renaissance, 1825–1915
The phrase “Russian revival” refers to a variety of various architectural traditions in Russia that combined Byzantine and pre-Petrine components in an eclectic manner. The Russian Revival style, which is an interpretation and stylization of the Russian architectural legacy, emerged in the context of the revived interest in national architecture.
Victorian Era (1845–1900)
A number of architectural revival styles made up Victorian architecture. The term “Victorian” refers to the period of time known as the Victorian era, which ran from 1837 to 1901 in England, and was characterized by the adoption of Victorian architectural styles. But many of the characteristics of what is commonly referred to as “Victorian” architecture did not gain popularity until later in Victoria’s reign. Interpretations and eclectic revivals of historical styles were frequently seen.
1840 to 1900 saw the Romanesque Renaissance.
A construction style known as the Romanesque Revival was influenced by the Romanesque architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries. Romanesque Revival structures, on the other hand, frequently have more streamlined arches and windows than their traditional equivalents.
Swiss Chalet Design, ca. 1850–1900
Originally influenced by rural chalets in Switzerland and the Alpine areas of Central Europe, the Swiss chalet style is a Late Historicist architectural style. The term refers to conventional architectural styles with widely extending roofs and lavishly ornamented façades, including carved ornamentation and wooden balconies.
1860–1930: Arts and Crafts Movement
A decorative and fine arts movement that originated in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America, the Arts and Crafts movement later spread to Japan (under the name of the Mingei movement) in the 1920s. It represented traditional workmanship utilizing straightforward forms and frequently incorporated medieval, romantic, or folk decorative elements.
1830 to 1880: Beaux-Arts
The term “Beaux Arts” refers to the architectural style that was initially taught from 1671 to 1793 at the Académie royale architecture and subsequently from 1795 at the Parisian École des Beaux-Arts. Symmetry, flat roofs, arched windows and doors, and classical elements defined this highly ornamental design.
1870 to 1914: Queen Anne Style
In Britain, the term “Queen Anne style” is used to describe either the English Baroque or the architectural style popular during Queen Anne’s reign. Instead of the huge palaces of noble magnates, the phrase is most frequently used in British architecture to describe domestic structures up to the size of a manor house, and they are typically created attractively but simply by local builders or architects. Contrary to how the name is used in America, it is marked by great bilateral symmetry and a pediment with Italianate or Palladian roots on the formal front elevation.
1876 through 1917 marked the American Renaissance.
A time in American architecture and the arts are known as the American Renaissance was marked by a resurgence of national pride and a conviction that the country was the rightful inheritor of Greek democracy, Roman law, and Renaissance humanism. The era runs from the Centennial Exposition commemorating the Declaration of Independence’s 100th anniversary until the United States’ entry into World War I.
1890 through 1910 was the Art Nouveau Era.
Art Nouveau represented a conflict between the old and the new. While it disapproved of certain of the 19th-century revivalist designs, it did borrow parts of Rococo’s organic forms and applied art, as seen in Hector Guimard’s Paris subway entrances. Gaudi and Mackintosh are two notable architects who incorporated art nouveau into their designs.
1900 to 1914: Early Modernism
In particular, modernist architecture was built on the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete. It also embraced minimalism, the belief that form should follow function, and the rejection of adornment.
Late 19th and early 20th-century Prairie Style
The Midwest of the United States is where Prairie School is most prevalent. The design is typically characterized by horizontal lines, flat or hipped roofs with wide overhanging eaves, horizontally banded windows, landscape integration, sturdy structure, expert craftsmanship, and restrained ornamentation. Horizontal lines were believed to resemble and relate to the broad, level, treeless prairies of early American design.
Scandinavian Classicism, 1910–1930
An architectural movement known as Nordic Classicism briefly took off in the Nordic nations (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland).
Nordic Classicism was perceived as only a bridge between National Romanticism, also known as Jugendstil (sometimes compared to Art Nouveau), and Functionalism, two far more well-known architectural trends (aka Modernism).
Modernism – 1912
In Italy, futurist architecture first appeared in the early 20th century. Its anti-historical inspiration may be seen in its long horizontal lines and streamlined forms that imply movement, speed, and haste.
After World War II, futurism fell out of favor, but with the rise of future comic books and the advent of the Space Age, it came back in a reinterpreted version.
1910 to 1924: the Expressionism Era
In line with the expressionist visual and performing arts, which particularly flourished and predominated in Germany, expressionist architecture is a trend in architecture in Europe. One of the three main types of Modern architecture is expressionist architecture (International Style, Expressionist- and Constructivist architecture)
Expressionist architects developed unique sculptural shapes and massing using materials like concrete and glass, sometimes distorting and fragmenting them to convey an emotional viewpoint.
From 1917 through 1965, Modernism
At the turn of the 20th century, modernist architecture, which is characterized by the notion that “Form follows function,” emerged in response to popular discontent with revivalist architecture and ornate adornment.
Building design evolved into a multi-disciplinary endeavor as buildings’ complexity (in terms of structural systems, services, and technology) increased. Different types and aspects of buildings now have specialized designers.
1917 to 1931: De Stijl
A design and art movement known as De Stijl (The Style) originated in the Netherlands, in part as a result of that country’s isolation during World War One. Strong geometric lines, vivid primary colors, and the articulation of distinct functional aspects made it easy to identify. It was incorporated into furniture, architecture, and art, most notably by Mondrian.
Despite the fact that very little actual architecture was created, Mies van der Rohe and other architects may nevertheless see the influence of structures like the Rietveld Schroder House (1924) in their work.
1920 to 1932: Constructivism
In the 1920s and the first few years of the 1930s, the Soviet Union saw a boom in constructivist architecture. It blended cutting-edge engineering and technology with a blatantly Communist social objective. Before fading from popularity in 1932, the movement created a number of groundbreaking projects and completed buildings despite being split into multiple rival sections. It significantly influenced the following architectural advancements.
1919 to 1933: Bauhaus
The Bauhaus school, which was established by Walter Gropius in Germany in 1919, took Deutscher Werkbund’s lead in redefining architecture as the fusion of art, craft, and technology. Because it rejects historical aesthetics and reduces structures to dramatically simplified shapes with logical, practical design, Bauhaus architecture is easily recognizable.
Art Deco – 1925
In the 1920s, Art Deco first appeared in France and swiftly expanded across the globe. It was an opulent yet varied movement that blended both traditionalism and modernism. It was distinguished by the use of novel materials, strong geometric shapes, and a contemporary “machine age” style, but it also featured lavish and profuse ornamentation.
Worldwide Fashion from 1927 to 1971
The middle of the 20th century saw the rise of the cosmopolitan style. The repetition of units and liberal use of glass marked this minimalist, harsh type of modernism. In many cities all around the world, tall structures still frequently follow this design. The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York served as its perfect embodiment.
Violence from 1951 to 1975
The modernist architectural trend of the early 20th century gave rise to brutalist architecture. Utilitarian designs, which are regarded as both an ethic and an aesthetic, prioritize function over form and show the unfinished components of their creation. The most well-known building material of Brutalist design\ is reinforced concrete, but other materials like brick, glass, steel, and rough-hewn stone may also be utilized.
50 years of postmodernism through 2007
Modernism, which some thought excessively severe and desolate due to its lack of decoration, gave rise to postmodernism. Postmodernism broke free from the “box” and incorporated aesthetic allusions in ways that were frequently fun or carried hidden symbolism. Designs used trompe l’oeil, sculptural forms, and contrasting style aspects.
In response to postmodernism, neomodernism arose and is still in use today. It is frequently employed in the design of corporate offices and has a tendency to be monolithic and functional.
1953: Critical Regionalism
A style of architecture known as “critical regionalism” rejects both the decoration and whimsy of postmodern architecture while attempting to address the placelessness and lack of identity of the International Style. Critical regionalism strives to create architecture that is rooted in the modern tradition yet connected to its geographic and cultural setting. Critical regionalism goes beyond simple vernacular architecture regionalism. It is a forward-thinking method of design that aims to bridge the gap between the universal and regional dialects of architecture.
High-tech buildings are renowned for exposing functional components like skeletal frameworks and mechanical services that are piped in. Practitioners include Richard Rogers and Norman Foster, whose famed Pompidou Center in Paris has an “inside-out” appearance.
1980 Memphis Group
Ettore Sottsass established the Italian design and architecture firm The Memphis Group in 1980. The Memphis Group created postmodern furniture, textiles, ceramics, glass, and metal objects.
The work of the Memphis group was distinguished by ephemeral design with colorful and abstract adornment as well as asymmetrical shapes, occasionally randomly alluding to foreign or previous styles. Plastic laminate was frequently used in their creations.
Deconstructivism is a style of postmodern architecture that creates the idea that a completed building has been broken up. It is distinguished by a lack of symmetry, continuity, or harmony. The term “Deconstruction” refers to a method of semiotic analysis created by French philosopher Jacques Derrida, from whence the term derives.
Deconstructionism is a term that is frequently applied to the work of certain architects, including Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, Bernard Tschumi, and Coop Himmelb(l)au, who frequently disagree with the term.
Sustainable architecture aims to reduce the negative environmental effects of buildings by using resources wisely and sparingly, including materials, energy, development space, and the ecosystem as a whole. When designing the built environment, sustainable architecture takes a deliberate approach to energy and ecological conservation.
In addition to active measures like ground heat exchangers and solar panels, it also takes into account the embodied energy, source, and potential environmental effects of building materials. Passive design methods include using thermal mass to store solar energy as one example.
The phrases “blobitecture,” “blobism,” and “blobismus” refer to a style of architecture in which structures have an organic, amoeba-like shape.
As the successor to modern and post-modern architecture, parametricism is a current avant-garde architectural style. The phrase was first used in 2008 by Patrik Schumacher, a collaborator in architecture with Zaha Hadid (1950-2016). The principles of parametric design, which is based on the limitations of a parametric equation, are the foundation of parametricism. Equations are altered by programs, algorithms, and computers in the context of parametric design.
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